The radar device has a microprocessor that computes the velocity based upon the Doppler shift. Often the device is used in hazardous conditions, such as flooding, so using the radar device above the water minimizes the risk to the operator. Accelerometers can detect a change in tilt because they can measure and account for the Earth's gravity. Basically, the current meter is a wheel having several cups or vanes which turn round due to the force of water current. Others are more suitable for monitoring water flow in pipes. radar systems; Analogous systems using reflection or reradiation of waves whose nature or wavelength is irrelevant or unspecified, Systems using reflection of radio waves, e.g. a radar gun with means for generating a signal at a predetermined frequency directed at an object, the radar gun oriented at a vertical angle with respect to the object. Manning’s Equation, as it is commonly referred to in the United States, is an empirically derived formula for estimating the average velocity of a liquid flowing in an open channel. Propellor current meters - these are the older mechanical meters and still the standard in New Zealand. In such cases it is essential to measure depth and velocity and then determine the flow measurement. Pitch angle=asin (0.9636)=74.5° or 90°−74.5°=15.5° down. means for correcting the velocity measured to correct for the radar gun being disposed above or below the horizontal thus resulting in an erroneous reading due to the radar gun being disposed at an angle with respect to the horizontal, the means for correcting the velocity measured being a sensor that senses the angle of the radar gun with respect to the horizontal. NIWA has built flow stations on rivers and canals for decades. If the indicated speed on the radar gun is 10 feet per second and no cosine correction is made, then the actual speed of the water is 11.17 feet per second. A radar device for measuring the surface velocity of water moving in a horizontal plane in which the radar device is positioned above or below the horizontal plane. This is commonly referred to as yaw. Streamflow cannot be measured directly, say, by plunging an instrument into a river. Water flow instruments range from small acoustic doppler current profiling devices or small prop type meters for measuring very low flows in small streams, up to NIWA's flood-gauging POEM. The float rests on the water in a float well or a stilling well which is connected to the main channel by a pipe or a trench. a processor mounted in the radar gun to receive the output signal. the processor calculating the tilt angle of the radar gun with respect to a horizontal plane. primary radar systems; Analogous systems, Systems of measurement based on relative movement of target, Velocity or trajectory determination systems; Sense-of-movement determination systems, Velocity or trajectory determination systems; Sense-of-movement determination systems processing the video signal in order to evaluate or display the velocity value, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SMITH, KIMBLE J.;JANSON, SCOTT D.;SMITH, KEVIN T.;REEL/FRAME:012183/0456;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010909 TO 20010911, ABANDONED -- FAILURE TO RESPOND TO AN OFFICE ACTION, Simulating a radar signal reflected from a moving target, Method and Apparatus for Acquiring Local Position and Overlaying Information, Radar speed measuring device and method based on angle compensation, Device for measuring the frequency of vibrations on a tight drive belt, and method for performing the vibration frequency measurement, Method for estimating flow by means of radar wave flow meter, The device measured for the frequency of vibration of driving belt being tensioned and for performing the method that frequency of vibration is measured, Device for measuring the frequency of vibration in a tensioned drive belt and method for performing vibration frequency measurement, Device for measuring the frequency of vibrations on a tight drive belt and a method for carrying out the vibration frequency measurement, Gyro sensor module and angular velocity detection method, Method and system for determining position and orientation of an object, Surveying and position measuring instrument with a fan-shapped light beam, Level, angle and distance measuring device, Monitor device that measures and displays the flight characteristics of sports objects, Yield monitoring apparatus, systems, and methods, Laser sensor capable of measuring distance, velocity, and acceleration, Low cost 2D position measurement system and method, Solid state orientation sensor with 360 degree measurement capability, System for determining performance characteristics of a golf swing, Handheld optical distance measurement device, Handheld laser light detector with height correction, using a GPS receiver to provide two-dimensional position data, System, method, device and computer code product for improving the readability of an electronic compass, Gradient sensor and method of using the same, Remote attitude and position indicating system, Method and apparatus to determine the wind speed and direction experienced by a wind turbine, Method of adjusting monitor axis of optical sensors, Golfer's wind indicator and club selection assistance device, Method and apparatus to determine object striking instrument movement conditions, System for using a 2-axis magnetic sensor for a 3-axis compass solution, Information on status: application discontinuation. This is a two-axis accelerometer that is suitable for measuring static acceleration (e.g. While technology has changed over the years, we've still achieved a high level of standardization. It has a tail fin, to allow cable gauging, so can't operate in water as shallow as the Pygmy. When the antenna transmits the beam of radio waves, the beam forms an elliptical pattern onto the target area. Meters are devices that measure the stream flow by directly measuring the current. At 90° the target speed is 0 which is grossly incorrect. These have been used to gauge rivers for decades, and despite being mechanical, are reasonably robust and reliable but, unlike the ADCP, need to be calibrated annually. Thus pitch angle=asin (53/55). The accelerometer, A PWM circuit makes a square wave with a variable on-to-off ratio. For water flowing in a pipe under steady-state conditions (i.e., not changing over time), continuitymeans the water that flows into one end of a pipe must flow out of the other end. The Pitot tube was invented by a french engineer Henri Pitot i early 18s and further modified by a french scientist Henry Darcy. The radar gun reads the frequency data from the tilt sensors, and the computer software uses this in calculating the cosine corrected angle of the angle formed by the radar device and the point where the velocity is measured. The law of electromagnetic induction is also utilized, which takes the water flow as a conductor to measure the flow velocity. Read about how a POEM was used to gauge the flow of water entering the Lake Pukaki canal on the Waitaki hydroelectric scheme  POEM has no moving parts and, in addition to measuring flow up to 10m/s, can simultaneously provide useful information about turbulence. 2. Provides remote control and operation of float mounted ADCP/ADPs used for gauging rivers. Read about NIWA's current meter calibration service and flow stations in this article. point velocity probe (PVP) to investigate groundwater velocity below the water table suggested that the PVP may also be capable of measuring groundwater velocity within the capillary fringe. Its smooth towing speed gives superior results to hand towing. The outputs are duty cycle modulated (DCM) signals whose duty cycles (ratio of pulse-width to period) are proportional to the acceleration in each of the two axes (i.e. (Vertical angles of less than ten degrees (10°) do not result in readings with cosine errors large enough to need corrections.). Another advantage of taking measurements above the water is that waterproof instruments are not required. 1. 1. Pitch angle=asin (acceleration in the x direction/1 g calibration from the x sensor reading). When the operator tilts the radar gun at an upward or downward angle from the horizontal level position, the effect of gravity displaces the sensor. The radar gun is thus positioned at a vertical angle with respect to the water surface. Unlike the acoustic doppler devices and POEM, propellor current meters can't measure turbulence. Next, here are presented the Top 7 Liquid Flow Measuring Devices for Oil and Natural Gas. 2, there is illustrated a person. When used in measuring the volume of water passing though the water in a water meter, or the speed of the water passing through a flow meter, it is actually measuring the sound as it bounces off of bubbles, dirt or impurities in the water. This invention relates to measuring devices and more particularly to a surface velocity radar device for measuring water surface velocity. 2 is a schematic view of a typical application of the radar gun measuring the surface water velocity of a moving body of water. Streamflow is a measurement of the amount of water flowing through a stream or river over a fixed period of time. The liquid may be entirely open to the atmosphere, or may be contained within a closed pipe that is not full of liquid and only open to the atmosphere at the installation point of the flowmeter itself. Electromagnetic flow meter. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SMITH, KIMBLE J.;JANSON, SCOTT D.;SMITH, KEVIN T.;REEL/FRAME:012183/0456;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010909 TO 20010911, Free format text: FIG. With the mobile measuring device RP-30 (Radar Profiler) a surface velocity profile from rivers and channels is created and together with the data of the river cross-section and water level the discharge is determined. How do land use activities potentially influence water flows? With this device you are able to measure the velocity of a free flowing stream. gravity). The speed of the rotating wheel indi­cates the velocity of the current. This results in an automatically corrected measured velocity being displayed on the radar device. The only thing that is necessary are Arduino and some basic crafting skills and, of course, a free flowing stream. Flow Stations - These are usually a permanent structure located at a carefully selected, or constructed, stable site. They measure water level and convert this to water flow. Owner name: Mobile measuring system for non-contact discharge measurement. The change in … In both cases, an especial measuring device is employed to measure the water or the fracturing fluid that is pumped into the rock. Instead, it must be calculated in a process known as stream gaging. Thus it is important to correct for the vertical angle when taking measurements of surface water from an elevated position. The conversion is usually done with a rating derived from gauging the cross section of the open channel beside the station, or using the relationship associated with a weir constructed downstream. It is a related object to provide a radar gun with automatic tilt or vertical angle correction so that the gun can be positioned above the water surface, minimizing the hazardous risks to the operator if the operator was required to stand in the moving water. The above Table 1 shows the actual velocity speeds in the left column and the displayed speed at antenna to target angles in the right column if the radar gun is not adjusted for the horizontal angle from the position of the gun antenna to the target. The law of electromagnetic induction is also utilized, which takes the water flow as a conductor to measure the flow velocity. Not all flow measuring devices ... wood, or fiberglass and can measure water over a wide variety of flow ranges. DECATUR ELECTRONICS, INC., ILLINOIS, Free format text: The velocity-measuring device (1) consists of a base unit (10) with a command-display unit (17). Staff gages and float-operated units are the simplest devices used for this purpose. This Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) can accurately measure the velocity of rivers, streams, estuaries, channels, ports and harbours, across a channel up to 300 meters wide. As the angle increases, the target speed erroneously decreases, as Table 1 below shows. A radar gun transmits and directs a signal or beam of microwave energy (radio waves) having a given frequency at an approaching or receding target. In this manner, the sensor can relay data to a microprocessor. An accelerometer is a sensor that converts acceleration from motion or gravity to an electrical signal. Thus there has been provided a surface velocity radar gun with automatic cosine correction for measuring water velocity at an angle that fully satisfies the objects set forth above. 3 is an electrical schematic diagram of the accelerometer used to determine tilt angle and how it is connected to the radar device's microprocessor. 1 is a side elevation view of the inventive radar gun tilted down at a 45° angle. 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